You can plant things, and as they grow, harvest from them. This can be a useful source of a lot of consumables. Objects will have different floor types that they grow well on - and others where they don't, and they decay over time.
One of the most common things to farm is Algae. You can build an Algae Vat in a Manufacturer, and place it in your spaceship! Algae Vats will slowly decay, so you can use Ice or Life Water to replenish its HP.